Detailed Study:

Important Diagrams:

  • Structure of the Eye

  • Defects of the Eye

  • Structure of the Middle and Inner Ear

Frequently Tested Topics:

  • Difference between rods and cones

  • Functions of different layers of the eye

Important Past Questions:

  • Name the following:

i) The layer of eyeball that provides nourishment to the eye. (2019)

ii) The layer of the eyeball that forms the transparent Cornea. (2018)

iii) The kind of lens required to correct Myopia. (2016, 2017)

  • Give biological terms for the following:

i) A thin membrane covering the entire front part of the eye. (2015)

ii) The lens of eye losing flexibility resulting in a kind of long-sightedness in middle aged people. (2015)

iii) Structure that carries visual stimuli from retina to the brain. (2012)

iv) An eye defect in which the cornea becomes uneven. (2010)

v) The photosensitive pigment present in the cone cells of the retina. (2010)

vi) The fluid present in the anterior part in front of the eye lens. (2010)

  • Correct the statements by changing the underlined word:

i) The part of the eye which can be donated from a clinically dead person is the retina. (2019)

ii) Deafness is caused due to the rupturing of the pinna. (2017)

  • Choose the correct answer:

i) Aqueous humour is present between the:

A] lens and retina B] iris and lens C] cornea and iris D] cornea and lens


ii) The part of the human eye where rod cells and cone cells are located is:

A] retina B] cornea C] choroid D] sclera


iii) The photo receptor cells of the retina sensitive to colour are:

A] cones B] rods C] organ of Corti


  • Choose between the two options to answer the question specified in the brackets for the following:

Sclerotic layer or choroid layer (which one forms the iris?)


  • Give biological reasons:

i) We should not put sharp objects in our ears. (2018)

  • In each group the first pair indicates the relationship between the two terms. Rewrite and complete the second pair on a similar basis.

Eye : Optic Nerve :: Ear : _________


  • Rewrite the terms in correct order in a logical sequence:

i) Cochlea, Malleus, Pinna, Stapes, Incus. (2017)

ii) Oval window, tympanum, cochlea, auditory canal, ear ossicles (path through which a vibration of sound is transferred in the human ear) (2012)

iii) Pupil, yellow spot, cornea, lens, aqueous humour (path of entry of light into the eye from an object) (2010)

  • Differentiate between the following pairs on the basis of what is mentioned within brackets:

i) Rods and cones of retina (pigment)      (2015, 2016)

ii) Myopia and hypermetropia (cause of the defect) (2010)

iii) Near vision and far vision (shape of the eye lens) (2011, 2014)

  • A fluid that occupies the larger cavity of the eyeball behind the lens is _______.


  • What is the function of

i) ear ossicles? (2015)​

ii) Suspensory ligaments (2010, 2014)

iii) yellow spot (2011)

iv) vitreous humour (2011)

  • State whether true or false. 

Dilation of the pupil is brought about by the sympathetic nervous system.


  • Which part of the ear gives 'dynamic balance' and 'static balance' to the body?


  • Explain how the human eye adapts itself to bright light and dim light.


  • Briefly explain power of accommodation. 

(2011, 2016)

  • State the exact location of ciliary body.


  • Draw a well labelled diagram of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear.

Based on the diagram drawn above, give a suitable term for each of the following descriptions:

1) the sensory cells that helps in hearing.

2) the part that is responsible for static balance of the body

3) the membrane covered opening that connects the middle ear to the inner ear.

4) the fluid present in the middle chamber of cochlea

5) the structure that maintains dynamic equilibrium of the body


  • Draw a diagram of the human eye as seen in a vertical section and label the parts which suits the following descriptions relating to the:

i) photosensitive layer of the eye

ii) structure which is responsible for holding the eye lens in its position

iii) structure which maintains the shape of the eyeball and the area of no vision

iv) anterior chamber seen in front of the eye lens

v) outermost transparent layer seen in front of the eyeball


  • With reference to the functioning of the eye, answer the questions that follow:

i) What is meant by power of accommodation of the eye?

ii) What is the shape of the lens during (1) near vision (2) distant vision?

iii) Name the two structure in the eye responsible for bringing about the change in the shape of the lens.

iv) Name the cells of the retina and their respective pigments which get activated (1) in the dark and (2) in the light.


  • With reference to the human ear, answer the questions.

i) Give the technical term for the structures found in the inner ear.

ii) Name the three small bones present in the middle ear. What is the biological tam for them collectively?
iii) Name the part of the ear associated with (1) static balance (2) heating (3) dynamic balance.
iv) Name the nerve, which transmits messages from the ear to the brain.



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